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NEST Lab - NEuroSTimulation Laboratory


Dr. Sara Tremblay is a professor in the Psychology and Psychoeducation department at Université du Québec en Outaouais, and a neuropsychologist certified by the Ordre des Psychologues du Québec. She is also an affiliated researcher at the Royal’s institute of Mental Health Research.

Dr Tremblay’s work uses approaches from both neuroimagery and neurophysiology to better understand the action mechanisms of neuromodulation methods, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). To be more precise, she studies how rTMS modifies cerebral activity of the cerebral metabolism and neural networks using positron emission tomography (PET), resting-state functional magnetic neuroimagery (fMRI) and TMS combined with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG). The studies contribute to improve rTMS paradigms and generate more reliable and efficient protocols for the treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Dr. Tremblay’s second research axis aims at identifying neural predictors of the response to neuromodulation treatment in mental disorders. She seeks to develop objective neural measures of response to treatment in major depressive disorders, and identify specific neural profiles making an individual more susceptible to respond favorably to neuromodulation techniques as opposed to other treatments. As such, she uses methods from both neuroimagery and neurophysiology to monitor response to rTMS treatments.

Significant Work:


Sara Tremblay

Ph. D.


  • Tremblay S, Tuominen L, Zayed V, Pascual-Leone A, Joutsa J. (2020). The study of noninvasive brain stimulation using molecular brain imaging: a systematic review. NeuroImage.

  • Tremblay, S., Rogasch, N.C., Premoli, I., Blumberger, D.M., Casarotto, S., Chen, R., Di Lazzaro, V., Farzan, F., Ferrarelli, F., Fitzgerald, P., Hui, J., Ilmoniemi, R., Kimiskidis, V.K., Kugiumtzis, D., Lioumis, P., Pascual-Leone, A., Pellicciari, M.C., Rajji, T., Thut, G., Zomorrodi, R., Ziemann, U., Daskalakis, Z.J. (2019) Clinical utility and prospective of TMS-EEG. Clinical Neurophysiology, In press.

  • Hui, J., Tremblay, S., Daskalakis, Z.J. (2019). The current and future potential of TMS-EEG in psychiatry. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics.

  • Tremblay, S., Pascual-Leone, A., & Théoret, H. (2018). A review of the effects of physical activity and sports concussion on brain function and anatomy. International journal of psychophysiology. 132, 167-175. 

  • Tremblay, S., Hannah, R., Rawji, V., & Rothwell, J. C. (2017). Modulation of iTBS after-effects via concurrent directional TDCS: a proof of principle study. Brain Stimulation, 10(4), 744-747.

  • Tremblay S, Austin D, Hannah R, Rothwell JC. (2016) Non-invasive brain stimulation as a tool to study cerebellar-M1 interactions in humans. Cerebellum & Ataxias. 3(1):19.

  • Tremblay S, Lafleur LP, Proulx S, Beaulé V, Latulipe-Loiselle A, Doyon J, Marjańska M, Théoret H. (2016) The effects of bi-hemispheric M1-M1 transcranial direct current stimulation on primary motor cortex neurophysiology and metabolite concentration. Restorative neurology and neuroscience. 34(4):587-602.

  • Tremblay S, Larochelle-Brunet F, Lafleur LP, El Mouderrib S, Lepage JF, Théoret H. (2016) Systematic assessment of duration and intensity of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on primary motor cortex excitability. European Journal of Neuroscience. 44(5):2184-90. 

  • Tremblay S, Vernet M, Bashir S, Pascual-Leone A, Théoret H. (2015). Theta burst stimulation to characterize changes in brain plasticity following mild traumatic brain injury: A proof-of-principle study. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience. 33(5): 611-620 

  • Tremblay S, Lepage JF, Latulipe-Loiselle A, Fregni F, Théoret H. (2014) The uncertain outcome of prefrontal tDCS. Brain Stimulation. 7(6):773-783.

  • Tremblay S, Beaulé V, Proulx S, Tremblay S, Marjańska M, Doyon J, Lassonde M, Théoret H. (2014) Multimodal assessment of primary motor cortex integrity following sport concussion in asymptomatic athletes, Clinical Neurophysiology, 125(7):1371-9.

  • Tremblay S, Beaulé V, Proulx S, Lafleur LP, Doyon J, Marjańska M, Théoret H. (2014) The use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a tool for the measurement of bi-hemispheric transcranial electric stimulation effects on primary motor cortex metabolism. Journal of Visualized Experiments. Nov 19;(93) e51631.

  • Tremblay S, Beaulé V, Proulx S, De Beaumon L, Marjańska M, Doyon J, Pascual-Leone A, Lassonde M, Théoret H. (2013) Relationship between transcranial magnetic stimulation measures of intracortical inhibition and spectroscopy measures of GABA and glutamate+glutamine, Journal of Neurophysiology, 13; 1343-49

  • Tremblay S, Beaulé V, Lepage JF, Théoret H. (2013) Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation modulates GABAB-related intracortical inhibition in M1 of healthy individuals, Neuroreport, 24(1); 46-50

  • Tremblay S, De Beaumont L, Théoret H. (2011) Evidence for the specificity of GABA-mediated intracortical inhibitiory dysfunction in asymptomatic concussed athletes. Journal of Neurotrauma, 28(4), 493–502.

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